New problems and trends of cold chain logistics

2023-10-02 12:04

Cold chain logistics refers to a systematic project that refrigerated and frozen food is always in a prescribed low temperature environment in all aspects of production, storage, transportation, sales, and pre-consumption to ensure food quality and reduce food loss. It is established with the progress of science and technology and the development of refrigeration technology. It is a low-temperature logistics process based on refrigeration technology and using refrigeration technology as a means. With the rapid development of China's agricultural cold chain logistics industry, the state must formulate and implement scientific and effective macro policies as soon as possible. The requirements of cold chain logistics are relatively high, and the corresponding investment in management and capital is larger than that of ordinary normal temperature logistics.


China's cold chain logistics has formed a relatively mature industrial chain, of which the upstream of the industrial chain is the manufacturing link: including the manufacturing of refrigeration equipment and freezing technical support; The midstream link is mainly the transportation and storage link of cold chain logistics, which mainly includes three aspects: transportation link, storage link and other links. The downstream link is the application field of cold chain logistics, which mainly includes three aspects: agricultural cold chain logistics, pharmaceutical cold chain logistics and chemical cold chain logistics.


Second, analysis of the development status of China's cold chain logistics industry


Online shopping, fresh electricity suppliers, fruit and vegetable home collocation are the current popular consumption methods, fresh products have the characteristics of easy deterioration and corrosion, high purchase frequency, from the source to the hands of consumers must be fresh, its logistics distribution is inseparable from the cold chain equipment. In 2018, China's cold chain logistics market reached 303.5 billion yuan, an increase of 48.5 billion yuan over the previous year, an increase of 19%.


In the whole logistics industry, compared with the large-scale aviation logistics, industrial logistics and other major logistics models, cold chain logistics is small, but the importance of cold chain logistics is not inferior. From 2017 to 2018, more than 20 national ministries and commissions, including The General Office of the State Council, the Security Committee of The State Council, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, and the Ministry of Public Security, issued 15 policy plans involving the cold chain logistics industry, taking the cold chain logistics industry as an important means to ensure food and people's livelihood safety. The overall growth rate of the market size of the cold chain logistics industry is faster than that of the logistics industry, and the proportion of the cold chain logistics industry in the logistics industry is also growing year by year. It is expected that in 2018, the proportion of the cold chain logistics industry in the entire logistics industry will reach more than 2.3%, and the value and status of the cold chain logistics industry is becoming more prominent.


With the continuous growth of the per capita disposable income of Chinese residents, the awareness of food safety has gradually upgraded, and people's concept has gradually shifted from eating enough to eating well and eating hygienically. This shift in perception puts further demands on food safety issues such as agricultural products, dairy products, and processed meat products, resulting in a rapid increase in demand for cold chain logistics. In 2018, the total demand for cold chain logistics in China reached 180 million tons, an increase of 33 million tons over the previous year, a year-on-year increase of 22.1%.


In 2018, the total capacity of cold storage in China was 52.38 million tons, an increase of 9.70% year-on-year. According to statistics, the cold chain transport volume in transit accounts for about 50% of the cold chain demand, then China's total cold storage capacity is about 40 million tons of the gap.


China's cold chain logistics industry is not highly concentrated. In 2017, the CR10 sales revenue of China's cold chain logistics industry was 14.319 billion yuan, accounting for only 5.62% of the market size of the cold chain logistics industry. The sales revenue of the top 20 enterprises was 17.315 billion yuan, accounting for about 6.76% of the market size of China's cold chain logistics industry. The sales revenue of the top 100 enterprises was 259.83, accounting for about 10.19% of the total market size.


With the continuous development of China's cold chain logistics industry, the business model has also changed, and the business types have gradually crossed, and the enterprises have also developed to comprehensive and supply chain. In the layout of the top 100 enterprises, there are more enterprises in the layout of transportation links, including 26 trunk transportation and 29 distribution links. There are 14 enterprises in the layout of warehousing links; The number of integrated and supply chain enterprises is 21 and 10 respectively.


Third, analysis of problems facing China's cold chain logistics industry


In 2018, China's economic situation faced downward pressure, and the Sino-US trade war had an impact on the food import and export business. In this case, China's cold chain logistics market still maintained rapid growth and made many positive changes, which is really gratifying. At the same time, we must also face up to the new problems facing China's cold chain industry.


In the new era, the main problem of China's cold chain logistics has shifted from insufficient basic service capacity to cope with higher level market challenges, which requires the joint efforts of relevant national departments, local governments, industry associations, and enterprises.


Fourth, the development trend analysis of China's cold chain logistics industry


1, the water is big, the cold chain market demand space is strong


In 2018, the size of China's hairy crab market approached 100 billion yuan, and the sales of high value-added products like this have a butterfly effect that drives the upgrading of mass consumption, and the stimulation of the cold chain is also immediate. In 2018, China's total food imports will exceed US $70 billion for the first time, an increase of 15.2 times in 20 years, and the cold chain behind imported food has huge potential. At the same time, with the integration of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the construction of the Greater Bay Area and the opening of more free trade zones such as Hainan, regional upgrading will certainly generate many new opportunities in the construction of cold chain infrastructure and urban cold chain supporting services.


2, the cold chain industry specification degree will be higher and higher


In August 2018, China broke out a large area of African swine fever epidemic, in order to prevent national infection, in order to control the price difference between the north and the south of pork, the relevant departments required to change the pig to the meat, that is, from the original live pig transport to the whole cold chain transport after slaughter, which greatly improved the cold chain market norms. In addition, from 2019, social security will be collected by the tax department, which will also enhance the standardized operation of cold chain enterprises. Coupled with the introduction of mandatory standards such as the "Food Cold Chain Hygiene Code", the threshold of the cold chain industry will be higher and higher, the market order will be improved, and enterprises will compete in a fair environment.


3, talent is the key to the transformation of cold chain enterprises


The cold chain logistics industry is in the wave of rapid changes in the market. If enterprises want to develop and grow, they need helmsmen who can lead and change the direction in time, management talents who dare to fight and are good at fighting tough battles and professionals who master new technologies. Enterprises should strengthen the reserve and training of enterprise talents through school-enterprise cooperation, internal training, management training, going out training, etc., and consider retaining talents by means of equity incentive and business dividend.


4, new technology and equipment to lead the cold chain industry change


The essence of the logistics industry is to reduce costs and increase efficiency, under the premise that labor, land and other costs will only rise and not fall, only the application of new technology and new equipment can drive cold chain enterprises to become bigger and stronger. Automatic sorting, intelligent warehousing, drone delivery, new energy vehicles, big data replenishment, artificial intelligence, etc., will be popularized in the cold chain logistics industry in a short period of time, which is the inevitable choice for enterprises in the future, enterprises should plan and invest in this regard as early as possible.


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